Dialog Teologic XXVII/53 (2024)

Dialog Teologic XXVII/53 (2024)
168 p., 17×24, ISSN 1453-8075, 25 lei.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53438/RIGU9318

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Tarciziu-Hristofor Şerban
La pauvreté dans la Bible (I): D’un état de fait vers une législation de solidarité
This article covert from a biblical point of view a social problem of permanent interest: poverty, seen as a state of precariousness caused by the multiple causes, some involuntary (the state of people left without support – widows, orphans, those with disabilities –, victims of natural disasters, immigrants, etc.) or voluntary (greed of peers, indifference of institutions empowered to watch over the observance of citizens’ rights, etc.) that led to it. It is, however, a scandal in a society that holds a theological view that God is a Father to all members of the People, from which it implicitly follows that the latter are brothers. However, such a scandal generated positions of some of those responsible, most often under pressure from prophets. These positions gradually led to the drafting of legislative codes designed to regulate scandalous social situations. When even these regulations did not eradicate poverty, then the vision of a new, messianic project was born. This project, which has as protagonist a descendant of King David, proposes a new vision (which I will develop in a later article) foreshadowed in several prophetic texts with a messianic theme.

Valerian Sergiu Topală
Neo-Thomistic Organicism, A Scientific-Metaphysical Perspective on Human Nature
This article offers an alternative solution to the perennial philosophical problem of human nature. The view proposed is “Neo-Thomistic Organicism”, a form of dualism, of the hylomorphist type, that does not subscribe both to the extreme characteristics of Cartesian dualism, and to complementarian non-reductionist physicalist views. Our optic integrates the scientific elements of a form of biological vitalism and both shares Aristotelian-Thomist metaphysics, and alienates from Thomas Aquinas in crucial points. In this sense, our perspective is constituted as a scientific-metaphysical understanding regarding human nature, in general, and regarding the soul-body relationship, in particular. The novelty brought by our article does not lie in a completely new perspective, but in some of the morelandian modifications made to classical Thomism and in the holistic approach to the subject that integrates the relevant scientific discoveries in the field of biology and neuroscience. In opposition to Moreland, on the question of individuation, this article is proposing a hybrid approach to how substances and bare particulars possess properties. To achieve its purpose, our analytical approach will begin by offering an exposition of Thomas Aquinas treatise on human nature as it is registered in Summa Theologica, Ia, qq. 75-89, especially to outline, on this basis, some of the fundamental points in which we differ from classical Thomism. This will be followed by a presentation of our perspective, of the morelandian type, and its compatibility with scientific research in biology and neurology. Next, in order to further clarify our position, we will turn to a comparison between the morelandian perspective and complementarian naturalist-physicalist conceptions of human nature, especially of substance. At the end of this comparison we will outline the objections to the morelandian view that distinguish us from it. Finally, we will offer a response to the causal pairing physicalist objection.

Kiss Endre
Il peccato e la riconciliazione nel documento conciliare Gaudium et Spes
How does the pastoral constitution of Vatican II, Gaudium et Spes, present the theme of sin and reconciliation? We will seek to answer how the discourse on sin, reconciliation and the sacrament of penance fits into this precise point of the search for the defence of the freedom of the person, the profound truth of the self. In this context, the Synod, even if it does not devote a specific study to the subject, defines sin as an evil freely committed before God and against God, an evil that alienates man from the Father, from himself, from others, from creation. At the same time, however, says the Synod, from the moment of creation in the image and likeness of God, man always feels this distance from the Creator and also the need to return. God, who creates man out of love and charity, always approaches the sinner with mercy and calls him to repentance, to a full return to the Father’s house.

Petru Ciobanu
Alexandru Theodor Cisar – The martyr pastor
The article is dedicated to one of the most representative figures of the Catholic Church in Romania, Archbishop Alexandru Theodor Cisar, and briefly presents the life of this Catholic hierarch until the establishment of the communist regime in Romania. Most of the study presents the persecution to which he was systematically subjected by the communists, our aim being to justify the title of the article: the martyr Pastor.

Valerian Sergiu Topală: Neo-Thomistic Organicism, A Scientific-Metaphysical Perspective on Human Nature

This article offers an alternative solution to the perennial philosophical problem of human nature. The view proposed is “Neo-Thomistic Organicism”, a form of dualism, of the hylomorphist type, that does not subscribe both to the extreme characteristics of Cartesian dualism, and to complementarian non-reductionist physicalist views. Our optic integrates the scientific elements of a form of biological vitalism and both shares Aristotelian-Thomist metaphysics, and alienates from Thomas Aquinas in crucial points. In this sense, our perspective is constituted as a scientific-metaphysical understanding regarding human nature, in general, and regarding the soul-body relationship, in particular. The novelty brought by our article does not lie in a completely new perspective, but in some of the morelandian modifications made to classical Thomism and in the holistic approach to the subject that integrates the relevant scientific discoveries in the field of biology and neuroscience. In opposition to Moreland, on the question of individuation, this article is proposing a hybrid approach to how substances and bare particulars possess properties. To achieve its purpose, our analytical approach will begin by offering an exposition of Thomas Aquinas treatise on human nature as it is registered in Summa Theologica, Ia, qq. 75-89, especially to outline, on this basis, some of the fundamental points in which we differ from classical Thomism. This will be followed by a presentation of our perspective, of the morelandian type, and its compatibility with scientific research in biology and neurology. Next, in order to further clarify our position, we will turn to a comparison between the morelandian perspective and complementarian naturalist-physicalist conceptions of human nature, especially of substance. At the end of this comparison we will outline the objections to the morelandian view that distinguish us from it. Finally, we will offer a response to the causal pairing physicalist objection.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.53438/WOKN8508

Dialog 53-2 Topală