In our days, the birth and the proliferation of the new religious movements takes place in the background of a cultural rupture. The phenomenon of the new religious movements’ apparition is an invitation for the members of the Church to analyze and to recognize their responsibilities for the apparition and the proliferation of these new forms of religiosity. The article presents and evaluates from a Christian point of view two movements, which the author has considered more challenging in the local context – in the way it infiltrates and wins followers (the New Age movement), through the good organization, the number of adepts, and the exaggerated missionarism (the witnesses of Iehovah). Finally, the article pleads for the great anthropological affirmation of the Church of Christ in the beginning of the 3rd millennia: the mystery of the man won’t be understood but in the mystery of Christ.
The article underlines the fact that for the 3rd millennium Christian theology, the religious pluralism is a true instigation. This thing is confirmed by the numerous discussions concerning the theology of the religions, discussions that have different new tendencies: – eclesiocentrical, theocentrical with a normative christology, theocentrical with a non-normative christology – and paradigms: regnocentrical, logocentrical and pneumatocentrical. The study concentrates upon the pluralistical theology of the religions, a theological current appeared in the recent modernity, and illustrates his premises: the radical transcendence implies an apophatical discourse, the revelation has a symbolical character, the experience implies the perspectivism, the salvation is the hermeneutical criteria of the religious truths. The central problem in this recent theology is of an christological perspective; thus, the surpassing of the theocentrical paradigme means the ignoring of Christ (Jesus Christ is a myth, Christ isn’t Jesus, Christ is an illustrate unknown, the Logos is the radical transcendent, Christ isn’t Mesia). The author theologically evaluates these tendencies and pleads for Christianity as the „religio vera” and shows that, in the order of the salvation, Jesus Christ has an unique and universal role.
Principala caracteristică a teologiei pluraliste este încercarea de a provoca teologia creştină să redefinescă unicitatea lui Cristos în lumina învăţăturilor promovate de alte religii, considerînd pretenţia că Isus este unic ca mit. Küng promovează credinţa în Isus ca arhetip fundamental al relaţiilor dintre oameni, deschizînd dialogul cu celelalte religii şi insistă asupra unicităţii lui Cristos, deoarece, consideră el, lipsa unei norme absolute duce la diluarea moralităţii. Singurul aspect al existenţei umane care justifică moralitatea este religia care are ca normă absolută pe Isus Cristos. Punctul forte al teologiei lui Küng este dialogul creativ cu ştiinţa modernă şi cu religiile contemporane. Deşi contestat, Küng rămâne un gânditor original.
Sfânta Scriptură ne arată clar că pentru a participa la misterul vieţii noi în Hristos, este necesară o decizie personală, o convertire radicală la Hristos, potrivit Scripturii, şi părăsind astfel trecutul păcătos, omul se angajează plenar, în comunitatea eclezială, semn şi sacrament al Împărăţiei lui Dumnezeu. Creştinismul este religia revelată, diferită de religiile cosmice sau axa de mântuitor al lui Dumnezeu (Henry de Lubac), Hristos fiind Universul concret (Hans Urs von Balthasar). Teologii ortodocşi afirmă: Ortodoxia nu cunosşte decât două căi: credinţa adevărată şi erezia, fără compromisuri. De aceea trebuie căutat adevărul, iar unitatea este consecinţa firească a adevărului.
The non-Christian religions become more and more present in our daily life. The expansions of non-Christian religions and of religious movements that come from these religions represent a real challenge for the Catholic Christians. The Christians from every country and region need to be well informed about the religions that exist in their territory. The fact that we live in a time in which have flourished very much the partnerships between nations has determined the Catholic Church to re-examine its relations with the non-Christian Churches and to propose a new way of dialogue.
The non-Christian religions have always been a trial mark for Christ’s Church. History is impregnated with numerous conflicts between the Church and the other religions. The 2nd Vatican Council affirms the liberty of a person to adhere to a religion and the fact that this liberty has to be respected and guaranteed. Also, religions must work together to the common good and to the progress of the society. The present article underlines these features of the Council’s document and brings them up-to-date through the exemplification of concrete actions made in the favor of inter-religious dialogue.
On the background of the religious and cultural pluralism, nowadays Europe is registering the marginalization of Church, of the religious element and of the Christian values. This sad reality makes us speak about a new Europe, a new European with a new identity. Starting from this general view, the article brings out into bold relief the importance of Christianity and of its structures in building the first Europe, on the one hand, and on the other one, the actual European refusal of admitting Christian roots, that is the apostasy of Europe, caused by the secularized, materialist, relativist and pragmatist tendencies. But the main point of view of the author is that we assist also to the renewal of the spiritual life, to the appearance of the new and firm Christian consciences and to the reappraisal of the ethic Christian values in the public space. After this passing from past to present, the article proposes a Christian project for the future: Church needs a qualified Christian community, active and adaptable to the social cultural changes, able to inspire the behaviour of the non declared Christian people. This project seems to have winning chances because it had been already realized by Saint Benedict, for instance. But to do that the people of Europe must have more faith in God and more trust in the human being.
In the last decades, Europeans manifested in their religious seeking a grow attraction for the Asiatic religions, especially for Hinduism and Buddhism. This study exposes actually the points of contact and of dialog which can be established between Christians and Indian Hindu theology, which manifests an obvious inclination of getting autonomy, thanks to its sticking root in a very rich tradition recognized by history. This tradition was valued by the modern Hindu theologians: Standley Samartha, Vivekananda, Upadhyaya, Neakantha Gorec, Richard of Smet, who suggested in their books the deepness of the old Hindu thinking, and the relations which can be developed between the Hindu theology and the Christian doctrine, between Upanishads and the Christ. Thanks to its orientations favourable to the interreligious dialog, the study offers a generous opening to the approaching between Christians and non-Christians in the context of a globalized world.
At the elaboration of the documents of the second Council of Vatican worked together biblists, liturgists, theologians and philosophers. Among the philosophers, J. Maritain contributed through his vision about the Jewish people as God’s chosen people. Both through his participation to the Council and through his book “Mystery of Israel”, J. Maritain identified and denounced every form of anti-Semitism, religious, social, economical and political. “The spiritual essence of anti-Semitism is finally a christo-phobia phenomenon”. In the present article, V. Possenti illustrates the connotations of Israel’s mystery for the whole world, taking back the orientation of the French philosopher J. Maritain: in the interreligious dialog is necessary to discover the connections between the new chosen people and Israel, between the new God’s people and the people of the Synagogue.
Israel had one of the most troubling history. The XXth century represents for this people and for the whole humanity a painful remembrance. This article presents the Gènèvieve Fondane’s biography converted to Christian faith, as it results from the correspondence maintained with J. Maritain and his wife Raissa Maritain. Wife of the Jewish thinker Benjamin Fondane, during his detention at Auschwitz and after his death, Gènèvieve felt the power of God’s grace and, after many demands, asked to enter the order of the nuns Notre Dame of Sion. The present biography has a challenging message for nowadays people, representing both a reproach to anti-Semitism and a precious bridge in the dialogue between Jewish people and Christians.