According to the 1983 Code of Canon Right, the person guilty of abortion, followed by the effect, automatically falls into the excommunication latae sententiae given to the bishop. This article sets out the penalties for this crime, which the Second Vatican Council called an “abominable crime” (GS 51). The punishments based on the Holy Scripture are reviewed, then those provided by the councils of the first millennium and those proposed by the patristic teaching, and then, to analyze the penitential manuals and Byzantine right, following the presentation of abortion punishments in medieval jurisprudence and pontifical teaching until the codification of canon right. At the end, the text shows the punishments prescribed by the codes of canon right – that of 1917, that of 1983 and that of the Eastern Churches –, ending with an incursion into Orthodox law.
The pontificate of John Paul II has remained in the history of mankind and of the Church as an important one from many points of view, known for his contribution to the construction of a more human world, closer to God. The intention of this study is to show that Pope Wojtyła was a true defensor vitae – a great defender of life –, having numerous interventions in favour of life, especially unborn life, life from the womb and threatened one, what the Second Vatican Council called an “abominable crime”, that is abortion. The article presents these interventions being structured in three parts, the milestone being the Encyclical Evangelium vitae of March 25, 1995.
Epiktet sieht im Erreichen der Freiheit die höchste Erfüllung des menschlichen Daseins. Die Freiheit eröffnet sich für ihn als einzige erstrebenswerte Möglichkeit, die Verbindung zwischen ihm, als Teil des Logos, und dem ganzen Logos herzustellen und aufrechtzuerhalten. Aus der Perspektive der Herkunft ist der Logos die Ursache für die menschliche Freiheit. Aus der Perspektive des Zieles ist bedeutet er eine authentische Einheit des Menschen mit sich und dem Kosmos. Der Heilsplan, den Gott nach Lukas in Jesus Christus ausgeführt hat, involviert die Partizipation gegnerischer menschlicher Faktoren, die paradoxerweise dazu führen, dass der Plan sich letztendlich vollzieht.
This article sustains a base idea, namely, that in the moral life domain, there was always a tendency of „old” to „new” passing. In consequence, the article shows the way the passing from the casuistry moral to the moral inspired by the 2nd Vatican Council’s doctrine took place. In succession, the first beginnings of the renewal are presented, in order to find a new model of moral theology. Anyhow, the passing from „old” to „new” went slow. After the presentation of the moral theology’s development during and after the ending of the Council’s sessions, the article shortly presents the main dimensions of the new moral theology’s model, namely, the personal and commune dimension. Finally, the renewal situation of the moral theology in the Seminary (Institute of Iassy), the difficult steps taken to pass from the individualistic, psychological and juridical mentality of textbooks, to the mentality of manuals that point out the biblical, historical and ecclesiastical perspective of the moral.
Problemele de la care se pleacă în prezentul tratat sunt: relaţia dintre Cristos şi omul modern şi dacă se interesează Cristos de om sau omul este cel care se interesează de Isus Cristos. Răspunsul venit din partea omului trebuie formulat ţinînd cont de două elemente de importanţă deosebită: este bine să se ţină seama de faptul de faptul că bogăţia mesajului salvific propus oamenilor de Isus nu poate fi trăit în mod concret decât fragmentar pentru că fiinţa omului este limitată şi trebuie ţinut cont de faptul că răspunsul omului faţă de chemarea lui de creştin se desfăşoară într-un climat de aplicabilitate istorică. Isus promovează şi trăieşte o viaţă radicală, fundamentată pe împlinirea voinţei lui Dumnezeu şi trăită ca o slujire în favoarea oamenilor. De la evenimentele morţii şi învierii sale, Isus rămâne modelul de viaţă al omului de azi.
The religion cannot be transmitted only in a cognitive or cathechetic way, because it embraces the entire human being and communicates unconditional fundamental experiences for man’s existence and for his life’s meaning, but the religion must be exposed in all the ways that are able to bring it to man and through which man can come in contact with it. The challenge released by the author is simple and, in the same time, complex and powerful: can we use today in our religious didactic presentation other ways than only those with a strict cognitive content? For example, can we searched for access ways to religious values even on esthetic and semiotic ways? The liturgy considered as a concentrate explosion of religion, life unity of contents which are meant to be learned, passing on to „the game” and to „the drama” with biblical inspiration, which are seen as a communication that passes through experience and finishing with a highly important form of spiritual teaching, which is „didactic of private religious practice”, these are just a few important points that the author proposes us in a very original and interesting analyse.
Any moral value has its foundation in truth because good is the manifestation of good. The problem of truth and lie has been considered as having great importance in man’s life of all times. Man is measured by truth. The first lie is the simulation of truth by man himself. Man is tempted by lie and accepts the temptation of denying his ontological truth. Since the man is endowed with freedom, he is self-possession, trusted to him and disposing of him, but he did not offered by him this self-possession, instead he owns it to another. God puts his own infinite freedom in relation with the finite freedom of man. With his sinful presumption of wanting to be like God man has denied the truth of his being. For the modern man, his person has become the trustful point of reality. Lie knows today a collective and public dimension which amplified thanks to the social communications.
In the first part of this study, with a marked theoretical character, it is analyzed the condition of man called to live together with his neighbors. The quality of common life is offered by people’s fidelity given to truth, which, thus, becomes the foundation of communion between people. Further on, it is noticed the danger which threatens truth avowal in the social life, the gravest situation being the neighbor’s discrediting and, trough this, jeopardizing the common life. Understanding and avowing truth must cont of biblical exigencies concerning truth. This exigencies refer both to itself truth and to the importance of its avowing, to person’s and community good. Than it is analyzed what is not and what is lie and this is denounced like a grave form of destroying a culture which has to promote an authentic human pro-existence. The second part of the study, more practical, has in view the delicate situation in which the man can be forced at deceiving by necessity. There are not forgotten the conditions in which social-political mechanism practices an oppression of truth, and, trough this, a systematic destruction of man and of society. It is mentioned the importance of truth in publicity and in propaganda actual forms, emphasizing the good and the bad they could do. Finally, there are shown the special situations in which the professional secret and the persons who detain it must be protected.
At the beginning of 1960s in Europe unleashed the sexual revolution, whose ideology reduced family to a human association with immanent purpose. The article of Isidor Chinez presents the dangers that attacked family’s integrity and the morality of the relations between spouses. Humanae vitae, in continuity with the Second Council of Vatican, proposes an integral vision of the human beings, marking the double value of the married relation, the responsible paternity, and the necessity of self controlling and the importance of respecting the moral laws. These norms receive their true sense when we consider its from the point of view of the married love which turns the spouses into God’s co-worker.
On the 25th July 1968 the pope Paul VI published Humanae vitae which caused explosive reaction both outside and inside the Church. Robert Lazu makes a survey of the acceptance and of the resistance aroused by this document, indicating the main moral principles we found in it and the social-cultural context which required such a document. In a personal manner, the author illustrates the great challenge of the matrimonial life proposed by Humanae vitae and the necessity of catechizations, whose propose is to transmit to the Christians these important data about the sexual life in family.