Even if in the world of ideas transactions are difficult to accomplish, this study takes us with an relentless impetus towards another world, the world „beyond”, still taking into account the fact that, no mater how high we would fly, our legs always touch the ground. Two colossus of music are given as an example of receiving God in human being. At G. F. Händel’s terrestrial brilliance represents the specific character, even if the heaven’s glances are presented in all his work as a sparkle from outside. J. S. Bach’s music instead is like a potion which a soul drinks it to end the thirst for God. From anywhere we start the music impenetrates us, opening our being towards God.
Music has always been fascinating; gift made by God to all mankind, is in the same time the language of God. Singing has always been considerated the most solemn manifestation of religious feeling, the highest expression of praise, adoration and gratitude brought to God. It’s role in liturgy is not adjacent or contingent; continuing the tradition of the Jewish people, Christians are a people that sing. Knowing all these, not rarely music enters in conflict with the liturgy; the danger of false inculturations has been present in the beginning of the Church and is also present now. Because of this, the author describes the role of singing in liturgy, and later he gives some general norms, among which, in a special way, are presented a few norms about singing at the Mass.
The introductive part of this article offers us a perspective look over Middle Ages art, philosophy and theology domains, that cannot be understood separately, because the Middle Ages vision is unitary in principles; the conflicts are being reduced, most of the times, only to details. In the second moment, the author analyses music in the philosophic-theologic point of view, from the beginning of the Middle Ages, which is dominated by the speculative aspect, and later he describes practical aspects of music which was underlined in scholastic’s philosophical and theological mentality. The Middle Ages through its love towards art, remain an authentic partner for dialogue in our „detailed” world.
Viorel SAVA: Cântarea şi arta bisericească în tradiţia bizantină. Locul şi semnificaţiile lor în cadrul cultului divin
In the Oriental tradition, divine cult preaches dogma, protects it, expresses it in an easy language and experiments it in liturgical life. Dogma is the one that gives authority, authenticity, profundity to the liturgical prayer. Church singing and Church’s art are both component elements of the divine cult. They do not appear exteriorly in liturgical life like something added after, but in interior like elements belonging to it, and determined by it. After he makes a short review over the different history phases of Church singing, the author offer us a spiritual perspective of understanding church singing like an „angel occupation”, enumerating and explaining some of the works of the singed prayer. Going forward, it is presented an explaining panorama of ecclesiastic art signification within liturgical life, that ends with the salience of the unificating vocation belonging to Oriental singing and art, in a more and more divided world.
Singing is one way through which man use to express his feelings and becomes in Christian liturgy a way of dialogue with God. To underline the importance of the music in religious life, the author makes a short historical incursion starting with Old Testament and ending with the latest documents of the Church. After this incursion, the study makes distinction between liturgical, religious and sacred music. Music has to fit in liturgy, to express the characteristics of Church: internalness, unity and communion. Religious music has to offer the means to express, to live, to transform the liturgic life into pray.
In the history, the prayer of the Church had different expressions and its development carefully considered the sung form. The antiphons were used in the Mass and in the Divine Office which means that this form of prayer has become an important liturgical function over time. This study explores a small group of antiphons: the “hodie antiphons”. The author wants to bring together all the antiphons of the Divine Office which begin with this word hodie (= today) and to delimit a repertoire quite original in terms of melodic and textual composition. The first part of this work offers a historical analysis of the concept of antiphon, the history and evolution of this concept and its use in the celebrations. The central part contains the analysis of the word hodie and the analysis of the manuscripts used in the preparing of the edition of Corpus Antiphonalium Officii, edited by the Benedictines of Solesmes (France).
The last part of this study proposes the analysis of the repertory of antiphons hodie. Textual forms are analyzed here with their variations in different liturgical traditions and forms. In the end are offered some melodic refunds made following the manuscripts, with the analysis of the sources. The study demonstrates the paleographical importance of oral tradition and attempts to set the vocal performance on the parchment, the evolution of Gregorian writing and the need to understand and transcribe the Gregorian Chant notation from the manuscripts. A comparative study of the antiphons and their esthetic and modal analysis concludes this work centered on a repertoire that belongs to the great events of the liturgical year.
Starting with the example of the famous emasculated singer Farinelli, father Florin Spatartiu, in this study analyses, at first view, an anomaly that existed and covered the entire Europe during over 200 years, namely, the voices of emasculated people in Baroque era music. These singers represented a category of artists that dominated the Western musical panorama beginning with the last decade of XVI century till classicism period, favoring the appearance of some unequaled musical masterpieces, having as authors Händel, Bach, Purcell, Scarlett etc., meant, in a great part, for these rare voices. The author treats, first of all, the historical aspects, underlining the appearance of this phenomenon and the way it underlied in the second Christian millennium, but at the same time, the music aspects. In the conclusion of this article father underlines that even if we think this way of realizing music to be strange and deviating from nature, for musicians of the Baroque era it was an opportunity to create, render and offer to the humanity unique music values, even if it means the sacrifice of so many normal lives.
Starting with the premise that generally, art (listening to a concert of classical music, visiting a museum, participating at a painting exhibition, etc.) constitutes an exigency of the human spirit and honesty, depending on the intellectual preparation and cultural luggage, judgment and hierarchy of artistic options, Father Dr. Florin Spatariu analyses music and arts hierarchy in the thinking of the great German philosopher Hegel. According to his thinking, arts are those ones that succeed to send, most of all, to life spiritual side, but may be, at the same time, ranking pyramidal, each of them occupying a place according to the artistic expression. Then, presenting each art (architecture, sculpture, painting, etc.), the author comes to the conclusion that, for Hegel, all of them are important, but from all of them, poetry occupies the first place because it repre-sents the most authentic form that the human spirit can express freely.