The question regarding the origin of man is one of the oldest ones. But it came again at the surface of wondering with the anthropological revolution caused by Charles Darwin in the 19th century with his evolutionary theory about natural selection. Nowadays, after more than one century, after the scientific crisis, after the Intelligent design debate, on calmer water, the truth about creationism, evolutionism and their relationship seem clearer. But before assuming a certain position concerning those two it is needed a process of understanding the roots of such visions, their intentions, and their consequences.
Since Charles Darwin has came up with the theory of natural selection there has been a never-ending dispute between evolutionism and creationism regarding the origin of man. This tension has led to the searching of the roots, the roots of man and of the speech about him. These roots have to see the man as unity. That’s why the speech concerning the origins of man must be both physical and metaphysical. For this reason, in this article I’ve highlighted the position of man in the cosmos and his nature beyond the seen reality. These aspects consist of the metaphysical intuition of men manifested especially in religion.
The article tries to respond to this questions: what makes the man be a human and a person? That is why, first of all, a short incursion in the philosophical background of today; second of all, a few frame elements about the question of man in the modern philosophy. Thus, the author passes to the analysis of the characteristics of the person, that from an ontological point of view, moves around three key concepts: dignity, truth and freedom. Together with saint Tomas d’Aquino, one affirms: that „persona significat id quod est perfectissimum in tota natura, scilicet subsistens in rationali natura” and it is especially underlined that the human person is a center of dynamic unification, is a concrete totality, that shows itself in the analysis of the relation between dignity and liberty. After a short digression upon the reductionism and of upon what is irresistible in man, the author verifies the dignity of the man in two domains, today, in crisis: the idea of humanism and the „literal” education from universities. Finally, the author pleads for a humanism that represents the tension towards the realization of the essence or of the human nature and a formation road that should be penetrated by the truth-principle.
În contextul cultural şi spiritual de astăzi, pentru un creştin nu există o reală împlinire a omului în afara unei relaţii cu Hristos, relaţie posibilă numai în Biserică. Biserica lui Hristos este mediul sacramental în care se realizează creşterea spirituală şi împlinirea existenţială a omului. Pentru ca omul să se împlinească în Biserică este nevoie să se îndeplinească unele condiţii: prima este ascultarea duhovnicească faţă de Biserică, în care un rol prioritar îl are iubirea; a doua este disciplina ascetică care set un act liturgic, o lucrare a creştinului împreună cu harul Duhului Sfânt, care are ca scop transformarea sa în templu al lui Dumnezeu.
Pentru sfântul Augustin, ca şi pentru Părinţii Bisericii din această perioadă, omul participă la fiinţa lui Dumnezeu: dovada acestei participări este elementul spiritual din om. Sfântul Augustin este primul care susţine că prototipul creaţiei omului este Sfânta Treime. După sfântul Augustin, omul este imaginea şi asemănarea Sfintei Treimi; imaginea este imprimată în omul interior, adică în sufletul raţional, într-un om interior contemplativ şi înţelept, nu în omul învăţat. Imaginea Treimii în omul interior se exprimă prin triada „mens” (mintea, spiritul în care sunt raţiunea şi inteligenţa), „notita” (cunoaşterea de sine în sens ontologic, act intelectiv prin care mintea se cunoaşte pe sine) şi „amor” (cunoscându-se, mintea se iubeşte). Asemănarea cu Sfânta Treime stă în existenţa a trei elemente constitutive (memoria, inteligenţa, voinţa) care, deşi sunt trei, fac parte dintr-o singură viaţă, minte, substanţă, formând o singură realitate.
The present article analyzes the thesis according to which the modern technologies to improve the physical life postulate an adequate knowledge of the human being and its primordial necessities. After the latest events that occurred in this domain this hard penetrating element has become more problematic. In consequence, the author wishes to look into the significance of the human nature concept, presenting from the philosophical and not from the theological point of view different ways of understanding the concept under discussion. In this case, the reference to Habermas J. and Fukuyama F. seems inevitable. With the help of Habermas we can track the future human nature identification, with a pronounced ethical character. With Fukuyama we can remake the human nature concept in a key that can be called neo-aristotelique. The author’s opinion is that the human nature cannot be changed, even if there can be modified lots of accidental elements from the human being when applying the modern technologies from the medical domain. Also, neither the human and social relations can be influenced: the human person cannot ever be modified in its base structure. Because it is an individualized human nature within a singular entity the person is guarantee of man’s unity. The present article contains some justifications for the thesis above, shortly analyzing the disease and therapy concepts and analyzing a little more the risks that the reduction understanding of a reality’s content can have. In the end the author shows how important it is the correct understanding of the human nature concept in domains such as philosophical anthropology, bio-ethics, and also political, moral and educational sciences.
An authentic reproposal of the sacred message in the consuming era cannot leave aside the multiple socio-cultural’ transformation endured by the nowadays man. In a clearly psycho-sociological key the author distinguishes the presence of a certain non-balance between the aspiration and the behaviour of the contemporary man. This state of being it is translated concrete by the apparition of new forms of social and psychic enslavements – devices to influence the human belief -, by the desperate chase for earnings, which puts in many times under question the values inherited from generation to generation, and last by the attitude of indifference toward the religious values or by the superficial and emotional perception of the Gospel’s message. The new evangelization must in this case identify and offer a new perspective in the perception and the understanding of divinity, which to make it known and lived according to the socio-cultural conditions of the contemporary society. Only in this way the mind and the heart of many people will be able to be reoriented towards an authentic Christian faith.
One of the fundamental aspects for mankind is the religious experience. The religious dimension is not something added to the man but it is an inherent gift. This is why it must never be constrained by the social-cultural factors. The dialogue shows that the Council Fathers, being aware of the religious freedom’s defection problems, voted the Declaration about religious freedom Dignitatis humanae, which is a major contribution to a greater cohabitation of men, not only as a response to the signs of our time, but also as an explaining of the Evangels principles. The Declaration Dignitatis humanae responds to the contemporary challenges: religious freedom, tolerance, the Church-State report, practical atheism, Evangels and the modern man.
Until the Second Vatican Council the lay Christian people had a rather passive role in the Church. The Council Fathers underlined the richness of the values that are to be found in the conscience of the lay Christian people, also the help that they can offer to the Church especially in the education, charity and missionary domain, a help that is irreplaceable. The Council proposed it self to make the lay Christian people aware about the fact that day are living limbs of the mystical body and that they must contribute lively to the Church’s life. This article presents the Decree about the lay people apostolate from the point of view of its implications in the structures of the other Council documents regarding the Church’s members.
In the last century appeared a lot of studies about identity which illustrate a bigger and bigger detachment between the Christian view about humans and the one of liberal scientism. These studies also identified two phenomena which conditioned in our era the identity process: globalization and the biotechnological revolution. This article starts by presenting synthetically these two recent phenomena and their consequences concerning humans’ life and thinking. In front of these recent challenges the Christian has to present his faith in humans, as God’s image, as master of an indelible dignity. The Christian’s speech has winning chances even today because also the post-modern people are thirsting for transcendence, a need which biologically can not be stopped or explained, and because of the transcendence’s reflex in the human persons, which has an universal valence, even if it is not codified as such by the recent national constitution and international conventions. Convinced of the existence of these anthropological foundations, the author can end his article with positive words, because every time and everywhere “the universality of humans’ rights is superior to non human”.