Even if the religious experience of the lay persons existed in every moment of history, the systematic reflection about laity has intensified especial in the last time. Assuming the teaching of the second Council of Vatican from the documents Lumen gentium and Gaudium et spes, Ottorino Pasquato illustrates the identity of the lay person and his part both in the ancient Church and in society, both in West and in East. The author describes the area of laity in the apologetics writings, and the relation between Christians and public institutions, between the biblical poverty and exigencies of social life, between monarchism and the matrimonial life. Then the study focused on the figure of John Crizostom, who spoke about the main part of family, “the little Church”, in children’s education and catechetical forming, in social charity, even in the pastoral mission. These prophetical intuitions can offer solutions the questions of nowadays Christian family and Europe.