This article deals with the establishment of the Episcopate of Iasi (June 27, 1884), with highligh on the personality of the first bishop (Nicolae Iosif Camilli) and his pastoral activity. Nicolae Iosif Camilli was an apostolic vicar for Moldavia at the time of his appointment as the first bishop of Iasi. The study also presents the first activity of the first bishop of Iaşi, with focus on his most important work: the establishment of the Diocesan Seminary „St. Joseph” in Iaşi, at the helm of which Bishop Camilli put in charge some Jesuits from Poland. However, this was not to the liking of his Franciscan brothers nor to that of the Superior General of the Franciscan Order. Therefore, after 10 years of pastorate, the first bishop of Iasi resigned in 1894, and the Catholics of Moldova were then led by Săbaoani parish priest Caietan Liverotti as an apostolic administrator until the following year when the Holy See appointed the Swiss Franciscan Dominic Jaquet as Bishop of Iaşi.