Dialog Teologic XXIV/48 (2021)

Dialog Teologic XXIV/48 (2021)
125 p., 17×24, ISSN 1453-8075, 15 lei.

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Gabriel-Iulian Robu
La Iglesia, la fe y la realidad de la crisis

The Church, Holy, catholic and apostolic, built on the unbreakable foundation of the Apostles, faithfully transmits the truth that has been entrusted to her and the richness of the deposit of faith that she has preserved intact throughout time. This truth is infallibly transmitted. If there is this authentic transmission of revealed truth, why is there still a crisis of faith in the lives of believers? Where do crises come from? Are crises of faith beneficial? Is the Church going through moments of crisis? Why does God allow moments of crisis in the lives of his loved ones? Speaking of the crisis as a phenomenon that can have both positive and negative effects, depending on how it is managed, we can intuit that the most appropriate attitude to go through the crisis is hope. With this in mind, I ended my article by referring to the Pope’s audience on September 20, 2017: do not give up on the night, remember that the first enemy to defeat is not outside of you: it is within. Therefore, do not give space to bitter, dark thoughts. This world is the first miracle that God made; He placed in our hands the grace of new wonders. This is our hope in the moments of crisis: God never disappoints. Hope is the attitude with which we go through times of crisis, hope and trust in God. We know that with God everything is possible, and that where our strength is weakened, His grace comes to our aid.

Ionuţ Eremia Imbrişcă
Per amore di Cristo Paolo affrontò con coraggio tutte le prove nel suo ministero apostolico

Many times in his letters, Paul testifies how he experienced at every step the reality of his own weakness during the apostolic ministry. In the sufferings, difficulties, persecutions and pastoral failures, Paul reflected on his own weakness and on the grace he received from God that helped him to live peacefully in the midst of the storms of his life. In his own lived weakness, Paul experienced that God did not abandon him, did not leave him alone, but precisely in that precise difficult context, he perceived how weakness became support and strength for him. The tribulations experienced by Paul could have had led him to despair and abandonment. But, on the contrary, in his life, the tribulations led him to be aware of the presence and grace of God.

Ştefana Goţia
Discernment and relativity of moral codes

In this article I will present an analysis of axiological anticipatory discernment, I will insist on some limits of particular moral codes and possible main lines of efficiency of moral codes, with permanent reference to a universal moral code. This reporting is a useful mechanism in the analysis and the way of discerning the current social dilemmas, because, for a good social functioning, it is necessary to have a deep understanding and responsible assumptions of the codes, contexts and ethical infrastructures to which we refer.

Iulian Faraoanu
Funzione e ruolo delle porte nella Nuova Gerusalemme di Ap 21

The internal description of the gates of New Jerusalem in Ap 21 focuses the concepts of the opening and universalism. The idea of a continuous opening reveals a change in the function of the gates and suggests a symbolic interpretation. The image of gates always open expresses total acceptance and willingness to receive the incessant flow of the nations that will enter the eschatological Jerusalem. At the same time, their non-closure means the absence of obstacles or barriers for entry into the holy city. This is the way to universalism. Actually, in the new heavenly Jerusalem enter the nations and their kings, emphasizing the universality of the holy city, in which everyone has the right to enter to enjoy the goods eschatological. The human component, the goods that nations bring, is added to the divine component of the city filled with the splendor and divine glory.

Petru Ciobanu
Non licere nascentem nocere: Cristianesimo del primo millennio contro l’aborto

This article is a review of the learning against abortion in the works of the Church Fathers, starting from the Apostolic and Apologetic Fathers till the golden age of patristics, both in the East and in the West. Another point is dedicated to the conciliar magisterium of the first Christian millennium, which condemns homicide, including abortion. The third part of the study refers to the Byzantine legislation, so that at the end some provisions of the legislation of the barbarian peoples are presented.

Michail Iulian Echert
The Paradox of being Christian in Globalized Society

Globalization, a phenomenon that initially manifested itself on the economic level, then on the social and cultural one, contributed decisively to the formation of this consciousness by bringing states closer together and strengthening their relations. Thus, we are dealing with an increase in interdependence, of the interaction between peoples around the world (economic, financial, military, tourism, educational) which has subsequently evolved into an accentuated interdependence between people. The Church is called to watch over these problems and to help the states, through the light of the gospel, to solve the truth. Even if some forces manifest themselves against the Church’s position in the contemporary world, the values that the Church proposes can help to develop another, more humane globalization that defends human dignity and promotes the progress of people. The Church received the mandate from Christ to carry on her loving work, understanding the salvation brought by Christ as a transformation of the social, political, and economic order. Thanks to the assistance of the Holy Spirit, the Church recognizes God’s plan that encompasses the entire human race and that envisions the union of all, in the paschal mystery of Christ, in the Kingdom of God, proclaimed as the sign of Christ’s reign over the entire universe. The mission of the Church is to fulfil the mandate of proclaiming the Kingdom of God and to anticipate its presence amid the community, leading the entire creation to its fulfilment in the Kingdom of God. The Church cannot remain indifferent to the problems faced by people’s families; therefore, it cannot provide a more telling proof of its solidarity, respect and love for the whole family of people than by establishing with it is a dialogue about these various issues.

Iosif Iacob
Il vincolo matrimoniale, sacramento di una vita perfetta nell’amore e santità secondo la visione Del Concilio Vaticano II

The form of life by which the secular man finds the fullness of his purpose is that offered by the sacrament of marriage and family life. In this environment he is called to collaborate in order to realize the kingdom of God; here he is given the opportunity to be an image of Christ in the world. In the marital bond, the spouses, through the mission they have towards each other and together towards the children, prove a particular vocation that, by virtue of the sacrament of marriage, is a symbol of mutual love between Christ and the Church, love in which lies the impulse of a continuous and mutual perfection. Thus, the vocation to a holy life, materialized in the act of mutual dedication and love within the matrimonial covenant, represents the essence of the sacrament of marriage and of a life lived in the fullness of the human and Christian values proposed by the Church through the teaching of the Second Vatican Council that does not lose its actuality, especially in the context of a global crisis on the identity and mission of the family that arises through the matrimonial covenant.

Lucian Farcaş
Perspektiven der sozialen Umkehr im Prozess des Wertewandels

A study that is focussed on the conversion from the social sin and on the transformation of the social structures affected by sin must take into account not only the strictly religious and ecclesial field, but also the phenomena in social- community life. According to the way in which the paradigm of the change of values in the society is interpreted and to the consequences that result from it on the realization and organization of life on a personal and social level, in this paper at first it is described a mostly optimistic thesis. In a second step, it is presented a thesis with rather pessimistic tendencies. Finally, a realistic thesis is analyzed, which emphasizes the ambivalence of changing values and highlights the significance of the synthesis of values for a good direction of life in modern society.

Ştefan Lupu
L’unità e la cattolicità sinodale della Chiesa Universale nella visione di Dumitru Staniloae

The relationship between the local Church and the universal Church was treated by Staniloae in the light of the traditional ecclesiological vision on the Church unity and synodal catholicity. Referring to the characteristic features of this synodal universality of the Church, Staniloae emphasizes, firstly, the ecclesial integrity of the local Church, an integrity that derives from the integral presence of the Holy Spirit in it, from the profession of apostolic faith and from the communion with the universal Church. The second aspect that characterizes the universality of the Church refers to the unity of all Christian communities in the same apostolic faith, a faith that is constituted not only by doctrine, but also by the sacraments celebrated by the hierarchy. The third aspect concerns the possibility of excommunication of a local Church if it departs from the integrity of the apostolic faith. Finally, the fourth aspect of the universality of the Church affirms the equal dignity of all local Churches.

Tarciziu-Hristofor Şerban
Le témoignage chrétien comme « événement de parole », selon Claude Geffré

In response to Pope Benedict XVI’s invitation to engage in an in-depth reflection on the transmission of the faith today, the Saint Joseph Institute of Romano-Catholic Theology in Iasi organized, on October 26, 2012, an International Symposium entitled „The Transmission of the Faith”. Among the various interventions, this article proposed (in the form of a lecture) an analysis of the meaning of the expressions witness – testimony – to testify, their theological content when it comes to the transmission of the Easter faith and the characteristic elements of testifying to this faith for our days. Throughout this work I have been considering the reflections of Claude Geffré proposed in his book entitled Le christianisme au risque de l’interprétation (the second edition, Cerf, Paris, 1988), in particular those of the chapter entitled „The Resurrection of Christ as an interpretative testimony”, pp. 107-127.

Lucian Păuleţ: The Holy Spirit Makes the Church One by Making her Catholic, Apostolic, and Holy According to Yves Congar’s Latest Vision

Yves Congar’s scholars agree that there is “no “Copernican turn” in his ecclesiological itinerary. While this is true, nonetheless, there is also significant evolution in his ecclesiology. One of the reasons of this progress is due to Congar’s continuously evolving understanding of the role of the Holy Spirit in the Church. Therefore, this article shows Congar’s later pneumatological ecclesiology with regard to the four notes of the Church which are contained in each other. Thus, Congar moved from a mainly Christological position to a more pneumatological one, in three directions. First, if catholicity was comprehended as the capacity of the Church to assimilate in its unity all the values of the world (in the first Christological model), now the Holy Spirit is the principle that stimulates diversity and guarantees the Church’s unity (in the second model). For Congar, the Spirit stimulates and resolves the fruitful tension between the universal and particular (churches). Ecclesial unity and pluralism are both necessary—pluralism in unity and unity without uniformity.
Second, for Congar, apostolicity means the continuity between the Alpha and the Omega of the Church, and the Holy Spirit is the principle of this substantial identity throughout history. Therefore, the Holy Spirit keeps the Church one by making her apostolic. In turn, apostolicity means that the unity of the Church is original and eschatological.
Third, the Holy Spirit purifies and sanctifies the Church by giving her new life. Doing so, the Spirit makes the Church the bride of Christ, his mystical body. It can be concluded that, sanctifying the Church, the Holy Spirit makes her one because he makes her “one flesh” with her bridegroom, Christ.

Dialog 47-10 Paulet

Iulian Faraoanu: Novità e preziostà nel simbolismo dei dodici fondamenti della nuova Gerusalemme (Ap 21)

The 12 foundations of the new Jerusalem are added to the 12 gates of the holy city which descends from heaven. The foundations are associated with the 12 apostles, a reference to the newssnes of the people of God. From a simbolic point of view, the foundations are 12 precious stones (Rev 21: 19-20). The precious stones were a sign of the eschatological restoration of the people of God. The same precious stones that abound in the new Jerusalem could create a contrast with the traffic of precious materials in Babylon (the Roman Empire). But the aspect on which we insist in Rev 21 is the preciousness of the people before God together with the exaltation of newsness. The new Jerusalem that will descend from heaven in eschatology is the new, perfect, unique, and unitary people of God, founded on the twelve apostles.

Dialog 47-9 Faraoanu

Ştefan Lupu: Il fondamento e la natura della sinodalità ecclesiale nella teologia di Dumitru Staniloae

In the vision of the Orthodox theologian Dumitru Stăniloae, ecclesial synodality has a double foundation: natural and theological, and manifests itself as a communion in the Holy Spirit. The natural foundation of ecclesial synodality consists in the fact that humanity was created as a “whole,” identical in being, but different in its constituents. The theological foundation of ecclesial synodality results from the dogma of the Holy Trinity and from the creation of man in the image and likeness of God. Reffering to the nature of ecclesial synodality, Staniloae states that this is the full actualization of natural synodality in Christ and in Church, that is, the “healthy balance” between the unity of human nature and the diversity of persons. The organic and symphonic unity of the Church mystical body, is the fruit of the Holy Spirit. Therefore, ecclesial synodality is an expression of the organic unity of the mystical Body of Christ and manifests itself as a communion in the Holy Spirit.

Dialog 47-8 Lupu

Fabian Doboş: Le risorse finanziarie della Diocesi di Jassy al tempo del vescovo Domenico Jaquet, OFM Conv. (1895-1903)

The present study presents briefly the main economic problems the Diocese of Iasi, which was founded on June 27, 1884, had been facing. At the end of the nineteenth century, the rapid increase of the number of Catholics led the diocese leaders to build new larger churches and enlarge the old ones. In this sense, the second bishop of Iaşi, Mons. Dominic Jaquet, a Swiss native, has sought funding in various Western countries. This bishop also took close care of the good progress of the Catholic schools within the diocese of Iaşi (the diocesan and Franciscan seminary, the Cipariu Institute, the Primary School of Iaşi, etc.). In order to cover all these expenses, Bishop Jaquet asked for financial help from both his church superiors and civil authorities. Thus, if the main financial support came from the superiors of the Congregation De Propaganda Fide in Rome, other aid for Catholics in Moldova came from France, through the Association Propagation de la Foi, which had its headquarters in Lyon. Also, the help of the Catholics from the diocese of Iaşi came both from the Romanian government and the one from Vienna.

Dialog 47-7 Dobos

Petru Ciobanu: Tra accettazione e condanna: l’aborto nell’Antichità

This article presents how abortion was received in the ancient world. As can be deduced from the title itself, this “crime”, as perceived by Christianity, was accepted, if we refer to the Greco-Roman world, including philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, as it was the state’s interest that should be put above the life value or the Stoics, who did not attribute any rights to the embryo, considering it a component part of the mother. Despite these views, there were others who opposed abortion, including among the great physicians of antiquity, among Roman poets or jurists, but even in this case it was not the life of the foetus that was defended, but, in general, the rights of the pater familias. An attitude of condemnation of abortion, from the same perspective, we notice in the Holy Scripture, in which only a single text explicitly refers to abortion (Ex 21, 22-25). However, as St. John Paul II states, the condemnation of abortion is implicitly included in the commandment “Do not kill”. In addition, there are numerous biblical texts that emphasize the value of the unborn life as a work of God. Also, there are provided attitudes towards abortion in the extra-biblical Judaism, apocryphal writings, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and other laws of Ancient Orient.

Dialog 47-6 Ciobanu

Cristian Barta: Significati ecclesiologici del martirio nella Chiesa Romena Unita con Roma, Greco-Cattolica, ai tempi del comunismo

Ecclesiological significations of the martyrdom in the Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic, during communism. This article is intended to analyze the martyrdom of the Romanian United Church to present its ecclesiological significations relevant not only for its own local ecclesiological reality but for the whole Catholic Church. The reflection we propose shall follow the theological implications of three aspects identifiable in the situation of the Romanian United Church during the communist persecution: the relationship between martyrdom, Eucharist and the Kingdom of God; the martyrdom of the entire Greek – Catholic synod of Bishops in Romania; the attempt to annihilate an entire local church of the Catholic Church.

Dialog 47-5 Barta

Maricel Irinel Mititelu: Il contributo della „Nuova ermeneutica” alla teologia del kerigma

From seven billion people on our planet, only two billion are Christians and, from these, a majority are unpracticing Christians. As Pope John Paul II was writing in 1990, “The mission of Christ the Redeemer, which is entrusted to the Church, is still very far from completion” (Redemptoris Missio, 1). Considering all this reality, in the last century we have witnessed a revival of the kerygma in the field of theological research, both theoretical and practical. In the coming articles, we wish to present, in chronological order, the steps through which kerygma became the guiding figure of the renewal of the evangelization in the twentieth century. This article presents the contribution of “The New Hermeneutic” to the kerygma.

Dialog 47-4 Mititelu

Iosif Tamaş: The beginnings of christian philosophy: “Fides et ratio”, Chapter IV

In the twentieth year of his pontificate, on September 14, 1998, on the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, Pope John Paul II reads the Encyclical Letter on the Relationships between Faith and Reason “Fides et ratio”. The concept of “Christian philosophy” takes on meaning and receives new contributions to the definition of the phrase. Chapter IV of the Encyclical Letter emphasizes the significant stages of the encounter between faith and reason, the drama of the separation between the two, and the eternal novelty of St. Thomas’ thought. Christian philosophy can only be a realistic philosophy, and as philosophy approaches moderate realism, it is Christian. A philosophy of the self has nothing to do with the Christian philosophy. Many consider philosophy to be something indifferent to Christianity and to Christians; they do not want to understand that the meaning and fate of Christianity stands or falls with the philosophy that adopts it; and because apart from Thomism, the other philosophies do not agree with Christianity, without compromise on one side or the other, they say: not only in reality, but also in theory, Thomism is Christian philosophy; the others are more or less philosophical, because they are more or less Christian. The “dark cloud” of mystery that separates believers from unbelievers will help to develop a balanced and communicable level of understanding Christian philosophy, useful to both. In this first part we will focus on: the presence of St. Paul in Athens; the cautious attitude of Christians towards gnosis; the role of Saint Irenaeus and Tertullian.

Dialog 47-3 Tamas

Gabriel-Iulian Robu: La misión de los Doce Apóstoles y la obra de evangelización de la Iglesia

My present intervention is divided into two parts: the first part, the mission of the Twelve Apostles and in the second part, the continuation of this mission into the work of evangelization of the Church today. Every missionary work is born from the mission of the Son of God and imitates it. Just as the Son, who was rich in glory and power, emptied himself, impoverished himself to enrich us, so the missionary service implies deprivation, abandonment of a guaranteed state, descending among the poor to enrich them with the most precious knowledge: the knowledge of Christ. This was the work of the Apostles too. The Church is called to do the same: to be missionary and evangelizer. The Second Vatican Council reminded us of this task. For two thousand years, but still today, more than half a century after the council, the Church is supporting an ongoing missionary and evangelizing self-conversion. And it’s not just about converting structures. Structural reforms do not by themselves change people’s behavior. So, what could be the key? Possibly, that each of us to have an evangelized interior, and then our works will be evangelizing.

Dialog 47-2 Robu